Recetas de cócteles, licores y bares locales

Este popular caramelo británico llega a Estados Unidos

Este popular caramelo británico llega a Estados Unidos

Los británicos Maltesers de Mars Candy llegarán oficialmente a los Estados Unidos en enero de 2017

¿Son los dulces británicos realmente mejores que los estadounidenses? Vamos a averiguar.

Los malteses están llegando a Estados Unidos. Durante décadas, el Reino Unido ha tenido una chispa de chocolate en su hombro sobre la calidad de los dulces británicos sobre los dulces estadounidenses. Allí fue incluso una protesta seria sobre la disminución de la calidad de los huevos de crème británicos Cadbury ahora de propiedad estadounidense el año pasado.

Los British Maltesers, propiedad de Mars, estarán disponibles en los Estados Unidos a partir de enero de 2017, informó Brand Eating. Estos caramelos de bola malteados cubiertos de chocolate pueden ser similares a los Hershey's Whoppers, pero los fanáticos de la repostería notarán las diferencias de textura y sabor.

Maltesers estará disponible en cajas individuales de 1.3 onzas ($ 1.09– $ 1.39), cajas de teatro de 3 onzas ($ 1– $ 1.70), bolsas de 3.52 onzas, tarrinas de 14.5 onzas ($ 4.99– $ 5.99) y tinas de 31.1 onzas ($ 9.48– $ 9.99 ).

Los maltesers ya están disponibles en línea y en cines seleccionados, pero llegarán a los estantes de las tiendas de abarrotes y de conveniencia después de Año Nuevo.


Este popular caramelo británico llegará a Estados Unidos - Recetas

REIMPRESO CON PERMISO

Una serie de cuatro partes sobre los grupos más grandes de emigrantes de las Islas Británicas a la América colonial. Eran: los PURITANOS que vinieron, principalmente, de East Anglia a la colonia de la bahía de Massachusetts entre 1629 y 1640, los CAVALIERS Y SIERVOS que vinieron, principalmente, del sur de Inglaterra a Virginia entre 1642 y 1675, los QUAKERS que vinieron, principalmente, de los ingleses Midlands a Pennsylvania entre 1675 y 1725 y los escoceses-irlandeses que vinieron, principalmente, de los condados fronterizos ingleses / escoceses (a veces a través de Irlanda del norte) a Virginia (a través de Pennsylvania) entre 1717 y 1775.

En ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se refirió a este segundo grupo de inmigrantes como "Cavaliers angustiados y sirvientes contratados". A medida que avanzamos, creo que verá por qué. Se trataba de un grupo de personas que emigraron principalmente de los condados del suroeste de Inglaterra de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire y varios otros al área de la bahía de Chesapeake en Virginia y Maryland entre 1642 y 1675, siendo el período pico la década de 1650. El motivo de esta migración fue un poco más complicado. Los puritanos habían tomado el control en Inglaterra y ahora los anglicanos estaban siendo perseguidos. Así que algunas de las personas que se fueron lo hicieron por motivos de persecución religiosa, al igual que los puritanos. Pero hubo una motivación secundaria para algunos. Las leyes de herencia en Inglaterra otorgaron todos los bienes inmuebles al hijo mayor de la familia. Algunos de los que dejaron Inglaterra eran segundos o terceros hijos de familias de "élite" que querían ir a un lugar donde pudieran tener su propia tierra.

Al principio, Virginia atraía a personas de distintos orígenes religiosos. Pero la religión principal fue la Iglesia de Inglaterra (Episcopal). Después de que Virginia se convirtió en colonia real, la Asamblea aprobó leyes que convirtieron a la Iglesia de Inglaterra en la Iglesia del Estado en Virginia (1632). Durante un período de tiempo, se hizo cada vez más difícil para las personas de religiones disidentes permanecer en Virginia.

Aproximadamente el 25 por ciento de las personas en esta segunda migración eran de la "élite" inglesa: tenían riqueza, posición social y educación en Inglaterra. Eran miembros de la Iglesia Anglicana y eran monárquicos en su política. El otro 75 por ciento eran de las clases bajas y vinieron como sirvientes, muchos como sirvientes contratados, para trabajar en las grandes plantaciones establecidas por los "caballeros". Estos eran pobres, analfabetos y no calificados. De inmediato, se estableció un sistema de clases en Virginia que no existía y no habría sido aprobado en Nueva Inglaterra. En esta migración, los hombres superaron en número a las mujeres en aproximadamente 4 a 1. La mayoría de los que vinieron eran hombres solteros de entre 15 y 24 años.

Los sentimientos familiares eran tan fuertes en este grupo como entre los puritanos, pero diferentes en sustancia. Se puso mucho más énfasis en la familia extensa. Los miembros de la misma familia extendida tendían a establecerse juntos y permanecer cerca unos de otros. La unidad de residencia era la familia nuclear, pero la unidad de asociación era la familia extensa. Se reunieron en vecindarios y enterraron a sus muertos en parcelas familiares. (A diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde había cementerios comunes en cada pueblo). Los términos "hermano" y "primo" se usaron de manera más vaga, y no siempre se pueden tomar literalmente cuando se encuentran en los registros. Los hogares a menudo incluían sirvientes, huéspedes y visitantes. Todos fueron tratados como familia mientras estuvieran en el hogar. Los virginianos no parecían sospechar de los extraños como lo eran los habitantes de Nueva Inglaterra.

En Virginia, las familias tendían a ser más pequeñas, principalmente porque la tasa de mortalidad era mucho más alta. Hubo más relaciones escalonadas por la misma razón. Este grupo compartía el fuerte imperativo de los puritanos de casarse. Los solteros y solteronas fueron condenados como antinaturales y peligrosos para la sociedad. Pero el matrimonio no era un contrato como en Nueva Inglaterra era una unión indisoluble, un nudo sagrado que no se podía desatar. Todos los matrimonios se realizaban en la iglesia estatal (anglicana) y no se permitía el divorcio. Había 5 pasos requeridos para el matrimonio: matrimonio, prohibiciones, ceremonia religiosa, fiesta de bodas, consumación sexual. Se requirió el permiso por escrito de los padres. No se pensaba que el amor fuera necesario antes del matrimonio. Cuando no ocurrió antes, se esperaba que siguiera. Los padres tenían un papel activo en las decisiones matrimoniales, pero por lo general no obligaban al niño a casarse en contra de su voluntad. Los matrimonios de primos hermanos estaban bien en Virginia y ocurrían a menudo. Esto siguió su patrón de "mantenerlo en la familia". Las fiestas de bodas eran elaboradas, a diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde no estaban permitidas. La edad promedio al contraer matrimonio para un hombre era aproximadamente la misma que en Nueva Inglaterra, 25-26 años, pero para las mujeres era más joven, 18-20. Algunos hombres no se casaron porque simplemente no había suficientes mujeres para todos. Se suponía que las relaciones sexuales se limitaban al matrimonio, pero los castigos no eran tan severos como en Nueva Inglaterra y las mujeres eran castigadas con más severidad que los hombres.

Los patrones de nomenclatura de los niños siguieron las costumbres del suroeste de Inglaterra. Los niños a menudo recibieron nombres de miembros de la familia, pero en un patrón diferente al de Nueva Inglaterra. El hijo mayor fue nombrado por su abuelo paterno, el próximo hijo por el abuelo materno, luego por el padre. Se utilizó el mismo patrón para las niñas. Usaban menos nombres bíblicos que en Nueva Inglaterra y, a menudo, nombraban a los niños para reyes y caballeros; los favoritos eran Robert, Richard, Edward, George y Charles. También usaron nombres de santos cristianos que no se encuentran en la Biblia y nombres populares en inglés; los favoritos eran Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances y Alice. Pero los nombres bíblicos de María, Isabel y Sara eran tan populares como en Nueva Inglaterra. Se practicó bautizo infantil.

Los padres de Virginia fueron más indulgentes que los padres de Nueva Inglaterra. En realidad, se animaba a los niños a ser obstinados, pero también se esperaba que observaran algunos rituales bastante elaborados de autocontrol. La idea del patriarca mayor era muy fuerte y también la rodeaba mucho ritual. Había pocas escuelas. Los niños de la élite eran educados en casa y los pobres seguían siendo analfabetos. No había municipios como en Nueva Inglaterra. La gente se instaló en plantaciones y había pequeñas aldeas comerciales.

La mejor fuente de registros es la Iglesia Episcopal, donde se registraron todos los bautismos, matrimonios y defunciones. Hubo un período de aproximadamente 100 años en el que todos tenían que hacer estas cosas en la iglesia estatal, incluso si no eran miembros.

Si desea estudiar estos grupos con más profundidad, le recomiendo que lea el libro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Gran parte (pero no todo) del material de este "Receta" es de ese libro.


Este popular caramelo británico llegará a Estados Unidos - Recetas

REIMPRESO CON PERMISO

Una serie de cuatro partes sobre los grupos más grandes de emigrantes de las Islas Británicas a la América colonial. Eran: los PURITANOS que vinieron, principalmente, de East Anglia a la colonia de la bahía de Massachusetts entre 1629 y 1640, los CAVALIERS Y SIERVOS que vinieron, principalmente, del sur de Inglaterra a Virginia entre 1642 y 1675, los QUAKERS que vinieron, principalmente, de los ingleses Midlands a Pensilvania entre 1675 y 1725 y los escoceses-irlandeses que vinieron, principalmente, de los condados fronterizos ingleses / escoceses (a veces a través de Irlanda del Norte) a Virginia (a través de Pensilvania) entre 1717 y 1775.

En ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se refirió a este segundo grupo de inmigrantes como "Cavaliers angustiados y sirvientes contratados". A medida que avanzamos, creo que verá por qué. Se trataba de un grupo de personas que emigraron principalmente de los condados del suroeste de Inglaterra de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire y varios otros al área de la bahía de Chesapeake en Virginia y Maryland entre 1642 y 1675, siendo el período pico la década de 1650. El motivo de esta migración fue un poco más complicado. Los puritanos habían tomado el control en Inglaterra y ahora los anglicanos estaban siendo perseguidos. Así que algunas de las personas que se fueron lo hicieron por motivos de persecución religiosa, al igual que los puritanos. Pero hubo una motivación secundaria para algunos. Las leyes de herencia en Inglaterra otorgaron todos los bienes inmuebles al hijo mayor de la familia. Algunos de los que dejaron Inglaterra eran segundos o terceros hijos de familias de "élite" que querían ir a un lugar donde pudieran tener su propia tierra.

Al principio, Virginia atraía a personas de distintos orígenes religiosos. Pero la religión principal fue la Iglesia de Inglaterra (Episcopal). Después de que Virginia se convirtió en una colonia real, la Asamblea aprobó leyes que convirtieron a la Iglesia de Inglaterra en la Iglesia del Estado en Virginia (1632). Durante un período de tiempo, se hizo cada vez más difícil para las personas de religiones disidentes permanecer en Virginia.

Aproximadamente el 25 por ciento de las personas en esta segunda migración eran de la "élite" inglesa: tenían riqueza, posición social y educación en Inglaterra. Eran miembros de la Iglesia Anglicana y eran realistas en su política. El otro 75 por ciento eran de las clases bajas y vinieron como sirvientes, muchos como sirvientes contratados, para trabajar en las grandes plantaciones establecidas por los "caballeros". Estos eran pobres, analfabetos y no calificados. De inmediato, se estableció un sistema de clases en Virginia que no existía y no habría sido aprobado en Nueva Inglaterra. En esta migración, los hombres superaron en número a las mujeres en aproximadamente 4 a 1. La mayoría de los que vinieron eran hombres solteros de entre 15 y 24 años.

Los sentimientos familiares eran tan fuertes en este grupo como entre los puritanos, pero diferentes en sustancia. Se puso mucho más énfasis en la familia extensa. Los miembros de la misma familia extendida tendían a establecerse juntos y permanecer cerca unos de otros. La unidad de residencia era la familia nuclear, pero la unidad de asociación era la familia extensa. Se reunieron en vecindarios y enterraron a sus muertos en parcelas familiares. (A diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde había cementerios comunes en cada pueblo). Los términos "hermano" y "primo" se usaron de manera más vaga, y no siempre se pueden tomar literalmente cuando se encuentran en los registros. Los hogares incluían a menudo sirvientes, huéspedes y visitantes. Todos fueron tratados como familia mientras estuvieran en el hogar. Los virginianos no parecían sospechar de los extraños como lo eran los habitantes de Nueva Inglaterra.

En Virginia, las familias tendían a ser más pequeñas, principalmente porque la tasa de mortalidad era mucho más alta. Hubo más relaciones escalonadas por la misma razón. Este grupo compartía el fuerte imperativo de los puritanos de casarse. Los solteros y solteronas fueron condenados por antinaturales y peligrosos para la sociedad. Pero el matrimonio no era un contrato como en Nueva Inglaterra era una unión indisoluble, un nudo sagrado que no se podía desatar. Todos los matrimonios se realizaban en la iglesia estatal (anglicana) y no se permitía el divorcio. Había 5 pasos requeridos para el matrimonio: matrimonio, proscripción, ceremonia religiosa, fiesta de bodas, consumación sexual. Se requirió el permiso por escrito de los padres. No se pensaba que el amor fuera necesario antes del matrimonio. Cuando no ocurrió antes, se esperaba que siguiera. Los padres tenían un papel activo en las decisiones matrimoniales, pero por lo general no obligaban al niño a casarse en contra de su voluntad. Los matrimonios de primos hermanos estaban bien en Virginia y ocurrían a menudo. Esto siguió su patrón de "mantenerlo en la familia". Las fiestas de bodas eran elaboradas, a diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde no estaban permitidas. La edad promedio al contraer matrimonio para un hombre era aproximadamente la misma que en Nueva Inglaterra, 25-26 años, pero para las mujeres era más joven, 18-20. Algunos hombres no se casaron porque simplemente no había suficientes mujeres para todos. Se suponía que las relaciones sexuales se limitaban al matrimonio, pero los castigos no eran tan severos como en Nueva Inglaterra y las mujeres eran castigadas con más severidad que los hombres.

Los patrones de nomenclatura de los niños siguieron las costumbres del suroeste de Inglaterra. Los niños a menudo recibieron nombres de miembros de la familia, pero en un patrón diferente al de Nueva Inglaterra. El hijo mayor fue nombrado por su abuelo paterno, el próximo hijo por el abuelo materno, luego por el padre. Se utilizó el mismo patrón para las niñas. Usaban menos nombres bíblicos que en Nueva Inglaterra y, a menudo, nombraban a los niños para reyes y caballeros; los favoritos eran Robert, Richard, Edward, George y Charles. También usaron nombres de santos cristianos que no se encuentran en la Biblia y nombres populares en inglés; los favoritos eran Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances y Alice. Pero los nombres bíblicos de María, Isabel y Sara eran tan populares como en Nueva Inglaterra. Se practicó bautizo infantil.

Los padres de Virginia fueron más indulgentes que los padres de Nueva Inglaterra. En realidad, se animaba a los niños a ser obstinados, pero también se esperaba que observaran algunos rituales bastante elaborados de autocontrol. La idea del patriarca mayor era muy fuerte y también la rodeaba mucho ritual. Había pocas escuelas. Los niños de la élite eran educados en casa y los pobres seguían siendo analfabetos. No había municipios como en Nueva Inglaterra. La gente se instaló en plantaciones y había pequeñas aldeas comerciales.

La mejor fuente de registros es la Iglesia Episcopal, donde se registraron todos los bautismos, matrimonios y defunciones. Hubo un período de aproximadamente 100 años en el que todos tenían que hacer estas cosas en la iglesia estatal, incluso si no eran miembros.

Si desea estudiar estos grupos con más profundidad, le recomiendo que lea el libro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Gran parte (pero no todo) del material de este "Receta" es de ese libro.


Este popular caramelo británico llegará a Estados Unidos - Recetas

REIMPRESO CON PERMISO

Una serie de cuatro partes sobre los grupos más grandes de emigrantes de las Islas Británicas a la América colonial. Eran: los PURITANOS que vinieron, principalmente, de East Anglia a la colonia de la bahía de Massachusetts entre 1629 y 1640, los CAVALIERS Y SIERVOS que vinieron, principalmente, del sur de Inglaterra a Virginia entre 1642 y 1675, los QUAKERS que vinieron, principalmente, de los ingleses Midlands a Pensilvania entre 1675 y 1725 y los escoceses-irlandeses que vinieron, principalmente, de los condados fronterizos ingleses / escoceses (a veces a través de Irlanda del Norte) a Virginia (a través de Pensilvania) entre 1717 y 1775.

En ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se refirió a este segundo grupo de inmigrantes como "Cavaliers angustiados y sirvientes contratados". A medida que avanzamos, creo que verá por qué. Se trataba de un grupo de personas que emigraron principalmente de los condados del suroeste de Inglaterra de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire y varios otros al área de la bahía de Chesapeake en Virginia y Maryland entre 1642 y 1675, siendo el período pico la década de 1650. El motivo de esta migración fue un poco más complicado. Los puritanos habían tomado el control en Inglaterra y ahora los anglicanos estaban siendo perseguidos. Así que algunas de las personas que se fueron lo hicieron por motivos de persecución religiosa, al igual que los puritanos. Pero hubo una motivación secundaria para algunos. Las leyes de herencia en Inglaterra otorgaron todos los bienes inmuebles al hijo mayor de la familia. Algunos de los que dejaron Inglaterra eran segundos o terceros hijos de familias de "élite" que querían ir a un lugar donde pudieran tener su propia tierra.

Al principio, Virginia atraía a personas de distintos orígenes religiosos. Pero la religión principal fue la Iglesia de Inglaterra (Episcopal). Después de que Virginia se convirtió en colonia real, la Asamblea aprobó leyes que convirtieron a la Iglesia de Inglaterra en la Iglesia del Estado en Virginia (1632). Durante un período de tiempo, se hizo cada vez más difícil para las personas de religiones disidentes permanecer en Virginia.

Aproximadamente el 25 por ciento de las personas en esta segunda migración eran de la "élite" inglesa: tenían riqueza, posición social y educación en Inglaterra. Eran miembros de la Iglesia Anglicana y eran monárquicos en su política. El otro 75 por ciento eran de las clases bajas y vinieron como sirvientes, muchos como sirvientes contratados, para trabajar en las grandes plantaciones establecidas por los "caballeros". Estos eran pobres, analfabetos y no calificados. De inmediato, se estableció un sistema de clases en Virginia que no existía y no habría sido aprobado en Nueva Inglaterra. En esta migración, los hombres superaron en número a las mujeres en aproximadamente 4 a 1. La mayoría de los que vinieron eran hombres solteros de entre 15 y 24 años.

Los sentimientos familiares eran tan fuertes en este grupo como entre los puritanos, pero diferentes en sustancia. Se puso mucho más énfasis en la familia extensa. Los miembros de la misma familia extendida tendían a establecerse juntos y permanecer cerca unos de otros. La unidad de residencia era la familia nuclear, pero la unidad de asociación era la familia extensa. Se reunieron en vecindarios y enterraron a sus muertos en parcelas familiares. (A diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde había cementerios comunes en cada pueblo). Los términos "hermano" y "primo" se usaron de manera más vaga, y no siempre se pueden tomar literalmente cuando se encuentran en los registros. Los hogares a menudo incluían sirvientes, huéspedes y visitantes. Todos fueron tratados como familia mientras estuvieran en el hogar. Los virginianos no parecían sospechar de los extraños como lo eran los habitantes de Nueva Inglaterra.

En Virginia, las familias tendían a ser más pequeñas, principalmente porque la tasa de mortalidad era mucho más alta. Hubo más relaciones escalonadas por la misma razón. Este grupo compartía el fuerte imperativo de los puritanos de casarse. Los solteros y solteronas fueron condenados como antinaturales y peligrosos para la sociedad. Pero el matrimonio no era un contrato como en Nueva Inglaterra era una unión indisoluble, un nudo sagrado que no se podía desatar. Todos los matrimonios se realizaban en la iglesia estatal (anglicana) y no se permitía el divorcio. Había 5 pasos requeridos para el matrimonio: matrimonio, proscripción, ceremonia religiosa, fiesta de bodas, consumación sexual. Se requirió el permiso por escrito de los padres. No se pensaba que el amor fuera necesario antes del matrimonio. Cuando no ocurrió antes, se esperaba que siguiera. Los padres tenían un papel activo en las decisiones matrimoniales, pero por lo general no obligaban al niño a casarse en contra de su voluntad. Los matrimonios de primos hermanos estaban bien en Virginia y ocurrían a menudo. Esto siguió su patrón de "mantenerlo en la familia". Las fiestas de bodas eran elaboradas, a diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde no estaban permitidas. La edad promedio al contraer matrimonio para un hombre era aproximadamente la misma que en Nueva Inglaterra, 25-26 años, pero para las mujeres era más joven, 18-20. Algunos hombres no se casaron porque simplemente no había suficientes mujeres para todos. Se suponía que las relaciones sexuales se limitaban al matrimonio, pero los castigos no eran tan severos como en Nueva Inglaterra y las mujeres eran castigadas con más severidad que los hombres.

Los patrones de nomenclatura de los niños siguieron las costumbres del suroeste de Inglaterra. Los niños a menudo recibieron nombres de miembros de la familia, pero en un patrón diferente al de Nueva Inglaterra. El hijo mayor recibió su nombre de su abuelo paterno, el próximo hijo del abuelo materno y el siguiente del padre. Se utilizó el mismo patrón para las niñas. Usaban menos nombres bíblicos que en Nueva Inglaterra y, a menudo, nombraban a los niños para reyes y caballeros; los favoritos eran Robert, Richard, Edward, George y Charles. También usaron nombres de santos cristianos que no se encuentran en la Biblia y nombres populares en inglés; los favoritos eran Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances y Alice. Pero los nombres bíblicos de María, Isabel y Sara eran tan populares como en Nueva Inglaterra. Se practicó bautizo infantil.

Los padres de Virginia fueron más indulgentes que los padres de Nueva Inglaterra. En realidad, se animaba a los niños a ser obstinados, pero también se esperaba que observaran algunos rituales bastante elaborados de autocontrol. La idea del patriarca mayor era muy fuerte y también la rodeaba mucho ritual. Había pocas escuelas. Los niños de la élite eran educados en casa y los pobres seguían siendo analfabetos. No había municipios como en Nueva Inglaterra. La gente se instaló en plantaciones y había pequeñas aldeas comerciales.

La mejor fuente de registros es la Iglesia Episcopal, donde se registraron todos los bautismos, matrimonios y defunciones. Hubo un período de aproximadamente 100 años en el que todos tenían que hacer estas cosas en la iglesia estatal, incluso si no eran miembros.

Si desea estudiar estos grupos con más profundidad, le recomiendo que lea el libro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Gran parte (pero no todo) del material de este "Receta" es de ese libro.


Este popular caramelo británico llegará a Estados Unidos - Recetas

REIMPRESO CON PERMISO

Una serie de cuatro partes sobre los grupos más grandes de emigrantes de las Islas Británicas a la América colonial. Eran: los PURITANOS que vinieron, principalmente, de East Anglia a la colonia de la bahía de Massachusetts entre 1629 y 1640, los CAVALIERS Y SIERVOS que vinieron, principalmente, del sur de Inglaterra a Virginia entre 1642 y 1675, los QUAKERS que vinieron, principalmente, de los ingleses Midlands a Pensilvania entre 1675 y 1725 y los escoceses-irlandeses que vinieron, principalmente, de los condados fronterizos ingleses / escoceses (a veces a través de Irlanda del Norte) a Virginia (a través de Pensilvania) entre 1717 y 1775.

En ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se refirió a este segundo grupo de inmigrantes como "Cavaliers angustiados y sirvientes contratados". A medida que avanzamos, creo que verá por qué. Se trataba de un grupo de personas que emigraron principalmente de los condados del suroeste de Inglaterra de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire y varios otros al área de la bahía de Chesapeake en Virginia y Maryland entre 1642 y 1675, siendo el período pico la década de 1650. El motivo de esta migración fue un poco más complicado. Los puritanos habían tomado el control en Inglaterra y ahora los anglicanos estaban siendo perseguidos. Así que algunas de las personas que se fueron lo hicieron por motivos de persecución religiosa, al igual que los puritanos. Pero hubo una motivación secundaria para algunos. Las leyes de herencia en Inglaterra otorgaron todos los bienes inmuebles al hijo mayor de la familia. Algunos de los que dejaron Inglaterra eran segundos o terceros hijos de familias de "élite" que querían ir a un lugar donde pudieran tener su propia tierra.

Al principio, Virginia atraía a personas de distintos orígenes religiosos. Pero la religión principal fue la Iglesia de Inglaterra (Episcopal). Después de que Virginia se convirtió en una colonia real, la Asamblea aprobó leyes que convirtieron a la Iglesia de Inglaterra en la Iglesia del Estado en Virginia (1632). Durante un período de tiempo, se hizo cada vez más difícil para las personas de religiones disidentes permanecer en Virginia.

Aproximadamente el 25 por ciento de las personas en esta segunda migración eran de la "élite" inglesa: tenían riqueza, posición social y educación en Inglaterra. Eran miembros de la Iglesia Anglicana y eran realistas en su política. El otro 75 por ciento eran de las clases bajas y vinieron como sirvientes, muchos como sirvientes contratados, para trabajar en las grandes plantaciones establecidas por los "caballeros". Estos eran pobres, analfabetos y no calificados. De inmediato, se estableció un sistema de clases en Virginia que no existía y no habría sido aprobado en Nueva Inglaterra. En esta migración, los hombres superaron en número a las mujeres en aproximadamente 4 a 1. La mayoría de los que vinieron eran hombres solteros de entre 15 y 24 años.

Los sentimientos familiares eran tan fuertes en este grupo como entre los puritanos, pero diferentes en sustancia. Se puso mucho más énfasis en la familia extensa. Los miembros de la misma familia extendida tendían a establecerse juntos y permanecer cerca unos de otros. La unidad de residencia era la familia nuclear, pero la unidad de asociación era la familia extensa. Se reunieron en vecindarios y enterraron a sus muertos en parcelas familiares. (A diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde había cementerios comunes en cada pueblo). Los términos "hermano" y "primo" se usaron de manera más vaga, y no siempre se pueden tomar literalmente cuando se encuentran en los registros. Los hogares incluían a menudo sirvientes, huéspedes y visitantes. Todos fueron tratados como familia mientras estuvieran en el hogar. Los virginianos no parecían sospechar de los extraños como lo eran los habitantes de Nueva Inglaterra.

En Virginia, las familias tendían a ser más pequeñas, principalmente porque la tasa de mortalidad era mucho más alta. Hubo más relaciones escalonadas por la misma razón. Este grupo compartía el fuerte imperativo de los puritanos de casarse. Los solteros y solteronas fueron condenados por antinaturales y peligrosos para la sociedad. Pero el matrimonio no era un contrato como en Nueva Inglaterra era una unión indisoluble, un nudo sagrado que no se podía desatar. Todos los matrimonios se realizaban en la iglesia estatal (anglicana) y no se permitía el divorcio. Había 5 pasos requeridos para el matrimonio: matrimonio, proscripción, ceremonia religiosa, fiesta de bodas, consumación sexual. Se requirió el permiso por escrito de los padres. No se pensaba que el amor fuera necesario antes del matrimonio. Cuando no ocurrió antes, se esperaba que siguiera. Los padres tenían un papel activo en las decisiones matrimoniales, pero por lo general no obligaban al niño a casarse en contra de su voluntad. Los matrimonios de primos hermanos estaban bien en Virginia y ocurrían a menudo. Esto siguió su patrón de "mantenerlo en la familia". Las fiestas de bodas eran elaboradas, a diferencia de Nueva Inglaterra, donde no estaban permitidas. La edad promedio al contraer matrimonio para un hombre era aproximadamente la misma que en Nueva Inglaterra, 25-26 años, pero para las mujeres era más joven, 18-20. Algunos hombres no se casaron porque simplemente no había suficientes mujeres para todos. Se suponía que las relaciones sexuales se limitaban al matrimonio, pero los castigos no eran tan severos como en Nueva Inglaterra y las mujeres eran castigadas con más severidad que los hombres.

Los patrones de nomenclatura de los niños siguieron las costumbres del suroeste de Inglaterra. Los niños a menudo recibieron nombres de miembros de la familia, pero en un patrón diferente al de Nueva Inglaterra. El hijo mayor recibió su nombre de su abuelo paterno, el próximo hijo del abuelo materno y el siguiente del padre. Se utilizó el mismo patrón para las niñas. Usaban menos nombres bíblicos que en Nueva Inglaterra y, a menudo, nombraban a los niños para reyes y caballeros; los favoritos eran Robert, Richard, Edward, George y Charles. También usaron nombres de santos cristianos que no se encuentran en la Biblia y nombres populares en inglés; los favoritos eran Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances y Alice. Pero los nombres bíblicos de María, Isabel y Sara eran tan populares como en Nueva Inglaterra. Se practicó bautizo infantil.

Los padres de Virginia fueron más indulgentes que los padres de Nueva Inglaterra. En realidad, se animaba a los niños a ser obstinados, pero también se esperaba que observaran algunos rituales bastante elaborados de autocontrol. La idea del patriarca mayor era muy fuerte y también la rodeaba mucho ritual. Había pocas escuelas. Los niños de la élite eran educados en casa y los pobres seguían siendo analfabetos. No había municipios como en Nueva Inglaterra. La gente se instaló en plantaciones y había pequeñas aldeas comerciales.

La mejor fuente de registros es la Iglesia Episcopal, donde se registraron todos los bautismos, matrimonios y defunciones. Hubo un período de aproximadamente 100 años en el que todos tenían que hacer estas cosas en la iglesia estatal, incluso si no eran miembros.

Si desea estudiar estos grupos con más profundidad, le recomiendo que lea el libro, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA de David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Gran parte (pero no todo) del material de este "Receta" es de ese libro.


Este popular caramelo británico llegará a Estados Unidos - Recetas

REIMPRESO CON PERMISO

Una serie de cuatro partes sobre los grupos más grandes de emigrantes de las Islas Británicas a la América colonial. Eran: los PURITANOS que vinieron, principalmente, de East Anglia a la Colonia de la Bahía de Massachusetts entre 1629 y 1640, los CAVALIERS Y SIERVOS que vinieron, principalmente, del sur de Inglaterra a Virginia entre 1642 y 1675, los QUAKERS que vinieron, principalmente, de los ingleses Midlands a Pensilvania entre 1675 y 1725 y los escoceses-irlandeses que vinieron, principalmente, de los condados fronterizos ingleses / escoceses (a veces a través de Irlanda del Norte) a Virginia (a través de Pensilvania) entre 1717 y 1775.

En ALBION'S SEED, David Fischer se refirió a este segundo grupo de inmigrantes como "Cavaliers angustiados y sirvientes contratados". A medida que avanzamos, creo que verá por qué. Se trataba de un grupo de personas que emigraron principalmente de los condados del suroeste de Inglaterra de Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire y varios otros al área de la bahía de Chesapeake en Virginia y Maryland entre 1642 y 1675, siendo el período pico la década de 1650. El motivo de esta migración fue un poco más complicado. Los puritanos habían tomado el control en Inglaterra y ahora los anglicanos estaban siendo perseguidos. Así que algunas de las personas que se fueron lo hicieron por motivos de persecución religiosa, al igual que los puritanos. Pero hubo una motivación secundaria para algunos. Las leyes de herencia en Inglaterra otorgaron todos los bienes inmuebles al hijo mayor de la familia. Algunos de los que dejaron Inglaterra eran segundos o terceros hijos de familias de "élite" que querían ir a un lugar donde pudieran tener su propia tierra.

Al principio, Virginia atraía a personas de distintos orígenes religiosos. Pero la religión principal fue la Iglesia de Inglaterra (Episcopal). Después de que Virginia se convirtió en colonia real, la Asamblea aprobó leyes que convirtieron a la Iglesia de Inglaterra en la Iglesia del Estado en Virginia (1632). Durante un período de tiempo, se hizo cada vez más difícil para las personas de religiones disidentes permanecer en Virginia.

Aproximadamente el 25 por ciento de las personas en esta segunda migración eran de la "élite" inglesa: tenían riqueza, posición social y educación en Inglaterra. Eran miembros de la Iglesia Anglicana y eran monárquicos en su política. El otro 75 por ciento eran de las clases bajas y vinieron como sirvientes, muchos como sirvientes contratados, para trabajar en las grandes plantaciones establecidas por los "caballeros". Estos eran pobres, analfabetos y no calificados. De inmediato, se estableció un sistema de clases en Virginia que no existía y no habría sido aprobado en Nueva Inglaterra. En esta migración, los hombres superaron en número a las mujeres en aproximadamente 4 a 1. La mayoría de los que vinieron eran hombres solteros de entre 15 y 24 años.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Written permission from parents was required. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


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